NOTOEDRIC MANGE (CATS)

What is it?
•Notoedric mange (known as feline scabies) is a highly contagious skin mite that typically only affects cats, although dogs, foxes, and rabbits may also be infected
•It is also contagious to people
•The mites are related to sarcoptic mange in dogs •Notoedric mange is considered rare in regional “hot beds” such as Southern California 

What causes it?
•Feline scabies is caused by a surface-dwelling mite, Notoedrus Cati, that leads to small, red bumps on the skin, thickening of the skin, and tightly adherent yellow crusts
•Scabs of a yellow-grey color and thickened skin appear on the ears and rapidly spread to the rest of the face
•Lesions may become widespread, spreading to the area under the tail and the feet
•The condition leads to severe scratching, which can cause secondary bacterial infections 

What tests are needed?
•Veterinarians will remove the scabs with a dull scalpel and examine under a microscope
•A skin biopsy may also be necessary to identify the mite 

How is it treated?
•All cats in the household must be treated, because the mite is highly contagious
•One therapy available is removing the scabs and debris with shampoo and applying a lime sulfur dip weekly for 6-8 weeks
•Selamectin (Revolution) is a topical cream available that is applied twice, 4 weeks apart
•Ivermectin is an injectable medication that can be very effective when given in small doses to a cat every 2 weeks for 3 - 6 treatments
•Moxidectin (Advantage Multi) is another monthly topical flea treatment that is effective against Notoedric mange and continued monthly use should prevent future infections 

What follow up care is needed?
•With adequate treatment, the itch and scabs will disappear
•If symptoms persist, the cat should be re-evaluated
•If secondary infections in the cat are treated and any other cats in the house are also treated monthly with Selamectin or Moxidectin, the prognosis is very good 

SARCOPTIC MANGE (DOGS) 

What is it?
•Canine scabies, or sarcoptic mange, is a highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite that burrows in the skin causing intense itching and irritation
•This disease can also affect humans and cats, but is more common in dogs, coyotes, and foxes 

What causes it?
•The disease is caused by sarcoptes scabiei, a burrowing mite that triggers an intense irritation of the skin
•Scabies is a severe nonseasonal itch that is very intense and often accompanied by secondary skin signs
•The most common cause of mange in dogs is exposure to another infected animal
•Clinical signs include hair loss, redness, small red bumps, scabs, and dandruff
•The top of the dog is usually unaffected, but the ears, elbows, ankles, and belly often show signs 

What tests are needed?
•Sarcoptic mange is suspected in any dog with a severe itch
•The diagnosis is typically confirmed after finding the mite, mite eggs, or mite fecal matter in the skin
•Sometimes this diagnosis is made if mites are not found by the dog having a positive response to mite treatment 

How is it treated?
•In severe cases the dogs environment should be treated with anti-parasite spray
•Topical therapy involves the application of medications such as scabicidal dip or shampoo, selamectin, or ivermectin
•Oral medication can also be administered to kill the mites
•Any secondary bacterial infections must also be treated appropriately withan antibiotic 

What follow up care is needed?
•All animals in the household and any dogs that have been in contact with the infected dog must be treated
•Ongoing treatment by your veterinarian is necessary to kill all of the mites as the mite eggs will take time to hatch
•Further diagnostic tests may be necessary if clinical signs have not decreased
•With adequate treatment, the prognosis is very good